1. What Does Bio-Utility Do?
1.1 What It Does: Bio-Utility is a 100% natural, environmentally friendly, chemical-free, non-pathogenic, living, microbial-based product that uses naturally occurring and beneficial bacteria to eat and digest waste and other organic contaminants in a wide array of commercial, industrial, agricultural, and residential applications, including municipal wastewater and water polluted by oil, distilleries, breweries, and shrimp farms. It provides a very effective biological alternative to chemicals and caustic solvents.
Bio-Utility provides biological wastewater treatment by using micro-organisms (bacteria) to naturally degrade organic waste. This results in Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) reduction, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) reduction, and wastewater smell control.
Bio-Utility is microbial and is made from sugarcane molasses with cultures of bacteria. There are no chemicals in it. The bacteria are able to tolerate acidic conditions, such as a pH of 4. Consequently, the bacteria can flourish and multiply in adverse conditions.
1.2 Micro-organism Ingredients: Bio-Utility is a very concentrated microbial liquid, with a heavy concentration of the following micro-organisms and others:
Bacillus, Nitrobacter, Nitrosomonas, Pseudomonas, and others. Other micro-organisms can be added according to the need or problem.
1.3 It Eliminates Foul Smells: Bio-Utility restores the beneficial bacteria population in the wastewater and increases the biological activity. The micro-organisms break down the chemicals in the wastewater into different forms, which are then made harmless or are consumed by the micro-organisms. The smell disappears as the chemicals in the wastewater are consumed by the micro-organisms in Bio-Utility.Foul smells arise from a lack of Oxygen and by the slow decay of organic matter in the water. The strong concentration of aerobic and anaerobic micro-organisms in Bio-Utility is very effective in breaking down organic matter and cleaning the waste water.
- The enzymatic and bacterial action removes the source of the smell problems.
- It removes foul smells from drains, ponds, golf course lakes, and wastewater lagoons.
- It degrades solid wastes (such as in portable toilets and sceptic tanks) and eliminates foul smells.
- It prevents blocking and foul smells in bathroom and kitchen drains.
- It eliminates foul smells from kitchen exhausts.
- It degrades biologically the organic deposits in grease traps.
1.4 Where It Can Be Used
- Distilleries, sugar mills, and breweries.
- Factory wastewater treatment.
- Oil industry wastewater treatment plants.
- Treatment of lakes and ponds, including on golf courses.
- Shrimp farms.
- Household and commercial property drains, drain pipes, and septic tanks.
- Residential wastewater treatment.
- Hotels and restaurants.
2. How Does Bio-Utility Treat Wastewater?
2.1 Bio-Utility Treats Wastewater Biologically
2.1.1 The Most Economical Option: When wastewater has a high concentration of dissolved organic matter, the most competitive option is biological treatment due to its simplicity and low costs. The removal of biodegradable organic matter, as well as Nitrogen and Phosphorus, through wastewater biological treatment is the most economical and simplest way to treat effluents. The main limitation of this type of treatment is the use of wastewater treatment substances, which inhibit the growth of microorganisms (biocides), such as Chlorine.
2.1.2 It Treats Wastewater Aerobically and Anaerobically: The microorganisms in Bio-Utility can degrade organic matter by using Oxygen (aerobic) or not (anaerobic). These are two very different types of metabolic pathways and both are needed in wastewater treatment. Whenever microorganisms have Oxygen they will grow and multiply using aerobic metabolism as this provides them with the most energy. Anaerobic metabolism is activated only in those conditions where microorganisms do not have enough Oxygen, such as in wastewater sludge at the bottom of a tank or lagoon. If the anaerobic microorganisms have nutrients, this gives the cells the ability to continue growing, but with a very low energy yield. Aside from cleaning wastewater, the effects include Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) reduction, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) reduction, and wastewater smell control.
2.2 Bio-Utility Provides Aerobic Wastewater Treatment
- Aerobic wastewater treatment, or biological oxidation wastewater treatment, is based on the ability of microorganisms to degrade organic matter by using Oxygen as an electron acceptor. This allows the cells to achieve high energy yields, which leads to the production of a significant generation of sludge. The aeration provides Oxygen to the bacteria and other organisms as they decompose organic substances in the wastewater and precipitate the sludge.
- Bio-Utility has bacteria, which work aerobically and clean water in activated sludge and lagoon wastewater treatment systems, among others. This biological process can be used for oxidizing carbonaceous biological matter, oxidizing nitrogenous matter (mainly Ammonium and Nitrogen in biological matter), removing nutrients (Nitrogen and Phosphorus), and for producing activated sludge.
2.3 Activated Sludge Treatment
- Bio-Utility will work well in activated sludge treatment, which is one of the most efficient ways to treat wastewater biologically. At the start of the activated sludge process, wastewater moves into an aeration tank that is pumped full of Oxygen. Aerating the wastewater increases the microbial growth of the bacteria in Bio-Utility, and this speeds up the decomposition of the organic matter that is in the water.
- Then this wastewater is transferred into a clarifier / settling tank, and the sludge in the water starts to separate leaving only the clean and treated water. The sludge in the settling tank is then returned to the aeration system with the new wastewater entering the aeration tank and is treated again with the microorganisms in Bio-Utility.
2.4 Anaerobic Waste Water Treatment
- Bio-Utility also has bacteria, which work anaerobically. Anaerobic bacteria help to treat and digest organic material in an Oxygen-free environment, such as when treating excess activated sludge or the sludge at the bottom of a wastewater treatment lagoon. The anaerobic bacteria are very beneficial in the treatment process when dealing with highly concentrated wastewater.
- Excess activated sludge, which is removed from the treatment process (to keep the ratio of biomass to food supplied in the wastewater in balance), is usually mixed with primary sludge from the clarifiers and it undergoes further microbial sludge treatment by means of anaerobic digestion.
2.5 Wastewater Treatment Lagoons
- Bio-Utility will also work well in aerated water treatment lagoons, which are mechanically aerated, to treat the water aerobically and anaerobically.
- The anaerobic zone in a lagoon is at the very bottom of the lagoon where no Oxygen is present. This area includes a layer of sludge, which forms from all the solids that settle out from the wastewater. In the anaerobic zone, the wastewater is treated by anaerobic bacteria; by microscopic organisms, such as certain protozoa; and sludge worms, all of which thrive in anaerobic conditions. The anaerobic bacteria, sludge worms, and other organisms, which provide treatment through digestion, also prevent the sludge from quickly accumulating to the point where it needs to be removed
- The process of aeration enables the water above the sludge layer to be treated aerobically. It increases the microbial growth; speeds up the decomposition of organic matter and the separation of the sludge from the water in the lagoon.
- Aerobic bacteria used in the lagoon convert wastes into carbon dioxide, ammonia, and phosphates, which, in turn, are used by the algae as food to break down the organic matter. Anaerobic bacteria convert substances in the wastewater to gases, such as hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, and methane. Many of these byproducts are then used as food by both the aerobic bacteria and algae in the layers above.
2.6 The Bacteria Produce Enzymes
- Bio-Utility provides a heavy concentration of micro-organisms to treat the wastewater. As the bacteria metabolize, grow and divide, they produce enzymes that break down organic matter. The bacteria are literally factories for the production of enzymes.
- The enzymes which are produced by the bacteria are appropriate to the environment in which the enzymes will be working. You, therefore, have automatic production of the right enzyme for the biological reduction of any waste material because Bio-Utility contains the required bacteria to start with.
2.7 How the Enzymes Work
- Enzymes in biochemical reactions act as organic catalysts. The enzymes create the reactions and after having caused it, split off from them and are unchanged. After the biochemical reactions are complete and products formed, the enzyme is released to catalyse another reaction.
2.8 The Enzymes Break Down the Organic Matter
- The enzymes break down the organic matter into water soluble nutrients, which the bacteria then digest. The bacterial digestion process consumes the organic matter.
- Using complex chemical reactions, the organic waste is metabolized down to water and Carbon Dioxide, thereby providing the bacteria with energy for growth and reproduction.
2.9 The Effects of the Enzymes
- The enzymes decompose the organic waste instantly.
- The micro-organisms in the formula degrade totally the waste decomposed by the enzymes by means of biological oxidation.
- Because the organic waste is consumed by the bacteria, it is then no longer present to produce odours, a large amount of sludge, pollution, or unsightly mess.
3. The Use of Chlorine
It is estimated that biological treatments can remove up to 90% of wastewater’s contaminants. Because all of the contaminants have not been removed, the wastewater is usually sent through a tertiary treatment process after the biological treatment. During this stage, heavy metals, nutrients, and other impurities are removed from the wastewater. The most common type of tertiary treatment involves the use of chlorine. However, in a biological wastewater treatment system, Chlorine is a biocide and kills off the bacteria, which treat the wastewater.
4. Using Lime and Limestone
Lime (Calcium Oxide), which is made from limestone, can be used to improve the wastewater treatment by raising the pH of the water to a level in which microorganisms work most effectively. Lime is commonly used in industrial wastewater treatment as this website shows: https://www.calcinor.com/en/news/2017-03-16/functions-lime-water-treatment/
If the wastewater in the wastewater treatment plant is acidic, adding lime to the treatment ponds will raise the water’s pH to around pH 7. Once the ph is around this level, then Bio-Utility can be added. Why not before? Even though the bacteria in Bio-Utility can multiply in very acidic wastewater, the bacteria will be most effective when the pH is about 7. They will also multiply more rapidly at a neutral pH. The aerators can be used before the water has a pH of 7, but they should certainly be used when the pH is 7 and Bio-Utility has been added.
If the wastewater contains a heavy load of phosphates, then placing limestone chips in a filter or adding it to the wastewater will remove most of the phosphorus. The literature shows that about 85% can be removed by adding limestone alone. Bacterial action will support the process of precipitation of the phosphates.
By using a limestone filter to remove phosphorus from the inflow stream, the wastewater treatment plant will also see a very noticeable decrease in phytoplankton production and more transparency in the water.
5. How to Apply Bio-Utility in Wastewater Treatment in a Lagoon Pond
5.1 A Sample Situation
- A wastewater treatment water pond is full of municipal wastewater with a size of 120 meters x 85 metres x 2 metres = 20,400 cubic metres of water.
5.2 The Standard Dosage
- The wastewater is at Level 1. (Household Wastewater)
1 litre per 500 – 1,000 cubic metres of water.
- The wastewater is at Level 2. (Mildly-Smelling Wastewater)
1 litre per 300 – 500 cubic metres of water.
- The wastewater is at Level 3. (Putrid and Foul-smelling Wastewater)
1 litre per 100 – 300 cubic metres of water.
5.3 Normal Guidelines
- For normal conditions when the wastewater is not smelly, mix 1 litre of Bio-Utility with every 500 cubic metres of water every 2 weeks. If the condition of the water is very bad, mix 1 litre of Bio-Utility with every 100 cubic metres of water and apply it every 2 weeks.
- Once the smell has gone and the condition of the pond is good, maintain it with 1 litre of Bio-Utility with every 500 cubic metres of water every 2 weeks.
5.4 Spray Bio-Utility Mixed with Water Over the Pond
- Add the mixture to the pond by spraying it over the surface. The aerators will spread it around the pond. Apply it once every 2 weeks.
5.5 How Can You Treat the Wastewater Pond?
- Add the mixture to the pond by spraying it over the surface of the lagoon. The aerators will spread it around the pond. If you cannot spray the mixture, pour the Bio-Utility into the wastewater as it flows into the pond.
5.6 Using Multiple Ponds
- Because wastewater is continually pouring into the main treatment pond, ideally the wastewater should be moved to another pond every 30-35 days, where the treatment can continue. Continue to add the mixture to the pond by spraying it over the surface. The frequency can be changed, if the smell has gone.
5.7 Dosage of Bio-Utility
- 1 litre per 500 cubic metres, if the condition of the water has an ordinary level of smell as opposed to a putrid smell. In this case, use 1 litre per 100 litres of wastewater and apply this every 2 weeks. It takes 30-35 days to clean the waste water properly and this is the usual length of time.
- If you aerate the lagoon with aerators, this period of time can be reduced, probably to 21 days. If the treatment plant wants to release the water in a shorter period of time, then it should analyse the water after 7, 10, 14 days to see if the cleanliness is at a level allowed by law or at a level, which it feels satisfied with.
6. Oxygenating the Waste Water
6.1 A Poorly Oxygenated Pond
6.2 Use Aerators As Well
- Set up moving paddle aerators that move down each side of the pond to create water circulation and movement, and to Oxygenate the wastewater. The aerators also stir up sludge so that it floats up. This gives Bio-Utility’s micro-organisms the opportunity to break down the organic matter. This will speed up the treatment and recovery process.
6.3 Increase the Oxygen Content
- This introduction of increased Oxygen levels has two positive effects:
- Increased levels of Oxygen in the water cause the decomposition of organic matter to occur faster, thus limiting the amount of nutrients available, and creating clearer water.
- Increased amounts of Oxygen also remove other gases like Carbon Dioxide and
6.4 Paddle Aerator Oxygenation
6.5 Lagoon Paddle Aerator Action
6.6 Use Underwater Oxygen Diffusers As Well
- Increase the amount of Oxygen being supplied to the water by installing underwater diffusers. If the condition of the wastewater is very serious, then you should start the recovery process with some lime.
6.7 Micro-pore Aeration
7. Treating Household Wastewater
- Bio-Utility can be used to treat wastewater in households and communities where there is no centralized wastewater treatment system. In these places Bio-Utility can be used to treat the wastewater in decentralized treatment systems.
- Example Situation: In Ghana only a small portion of the wastewater from the urban cities is collected for treatment. The bulk ends up in drains and nearby water bodies. Conventional treatment plants are underutilized due to poor sewage network in the cities where they are located. In many regional capitals, treatment facilities are few and even non-existent in some towns. The rural areas have no means of treating the wastewater produced. Small scale or decentralized systems of wastewater treatment are a way to solve these problems both in the big cities and small villages in Ghana and the West African sub-region as a whole.
- Analysis of information shows that implementation of conventional wastewater collection, treatment and disposal systems is not economically viable as the financial and institutional resources coupled with the efficiency required for their maintenance are beyond the means of most municipalities in Ghana. Decentralised systems will therefore be more sustainable than the conventional methods.
- Decentralised wastewater management may be defined as the collection, treatment, and disposal or reuse of wastewater from individual homes, clusters of homes, isolated communities, industries or industrial facilities, as well as from portions of existing communities at or near the point of waste generation. Bio-Utility can be used to treat the wastewater in decentralized treatment systems.
- Examples of decentralized wastewater treatment systems are:
- Tank Systems: These are the Septic, Imhoff, and Baffled Treatment Tanks.
- Pond Systems: These consist of Anaerobic, Facultative, and Maturation Ponds.
Information about how Bio-Utility can be used in Decentralised Wastewater Treatment Systems can be found here. Of special interest is the Baffled Treatment System, which is suitable for all kinds of wastewater especially for those with a high level of non-settleable suspended solids and low COD/BOD ratio.